The Solent is a mixed sea fishery, with fishing effort which varies between a number of different commercial species throughout the year. The inshore waters have an important role as a nursery area for bass, with specific areas identified for protection, and for a range of other fin-fish. The most significant shellfishery is for native oyster (Ostrea edulis), which represents the largest self-sustaining stock in Europe and is of international conservation importance. There is a non-native fishery for hard-shelled clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), which is greatly reduced from previous levels.
Important, and threatened runs of migratory salmon and sea trout make use of the Solent on their way to and from spawning grounds in the Rivers Test, Itchen, Meon, Hamble, and the New Forest streams, whilst eels migrate from the rivers to spawn at sea.
The Solent and Wight area has been highlighted as a shark and ray hotspot and provides a pupping ground for smoothhound, tope and possibly thresher shark. The area also provides a nursery ground for a number of other shark and ray species.
The Blue Marine Foundation are undertaking an Oyster Restoration project in the Solent.
Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authorities (IFCAs) are tasked with the sustainable management of inshore sea fisheries resources in their local area. The Southern Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority was vested on 1st April 2011 and the District stretches from the Devon border in the West to Sussex border in the East and covers the entire Dorset, Hampshire and Isle of Wight coastline out to 6 nautical miles from baselines.
Since 2016 Southern IFCA officers have undertaken, with the assistance of partners, seine net surveys in the estuaries and harbours of the District. Survey areas have included The Fleet, Poole Harbour, Yarmouth Harbour, Newtown Harbour, Christchurch Harbour and Keyhaven. The Environment Agency conduct fish monitoring reports for the Solent and South Downs.
The Southern IFCA list the following fish species in their district.